Parks Climate Challenge

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Service Project Examples
The projects featured below were completed by teachers and students nationwide and are shared to inspire and educate others about the power of student engagement that addresses climate change. These examples should give you ideas and thoughts on how to plan your own project. Upload your own project examples here.

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The Culture of Climate Change
School: Marathon Venture Academy, WI
Grade: 8
Date: October 15, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

The first expedition of the 2012-2013 school will be a study of the connection between culture and climate change. We will look at the impact of climate change at the local, national and global levels through field work, conversations with global climate experts and local observations. The final product will be a documentary that brings together culture, climate, local stories and the role of government to be shared during an MVA movie night. The documentaries will also be posted on the Climate and Cryosphere website.

In social studies students will investigate the components of culture, how policies/treaties have impacted culture at the local and national level and Native American studies. Science case studies will include weather versus climate and climate change. In math, daily class warm ups will include the analysis of trends and patterns of the earth's temperature in relation to greenhouse gases. The role of storytelling in culture, word history, personal storytelling podcasts and a final movie documentary will be the focus in english/language arts.

Field work will include a day long trip to the Northern Great Lakes Visitor Center in Ashland, WI to work with the DNR, Forest Service, Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission and UW-Extension staff. This field work will give students an opportunity to learn firsthand how climate has impacted the cultures of the northern Wisconsin communities.

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Pi Beta Phi Phenology Project
School: Pi Beta Phi Elementary, TN
Grade: 6
Date: September 10, 2011
Climate Literacy Principle: Our understanding of the climate system is improved through observations, theoretical studies, and modeling.

We have started a phenology project on the school grounds. We are currently monitoring 22 trees. Our students will also develop a brochure to share with parents and design a t-shirt with a message about climate change. Students have also participated in the phenology project located in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park at Twin Creeks.

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Climate Change Unit studies
School: North Beach High School, WA
Grade: 9
Date: November 2, 2011
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

This is a 3-week climate change unit designed to help students understand that climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives. The link is located on the school site and has most of the materials and instructions for completing the unit. Action projects include reducing electricity use through the Cool Schools program, as well as a paper/plastic recycling program throughout the school. It was used, at different levels, in all of my classes (physical science, biology, integrated sciences, physics)
http://www.northbeach.k12.wa.us/cms/lib2/WA01001708/Centricity/Domain/143/index.htm

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Stewardship Project
School: Chattanooga Christian School, TN
Grade: 8
Date: November 10, 2011
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

Students completed an actual action plan that practiced good stewardship of the earth. After following through with the action plan and collecting data for 2-4 weeks, students presented their results either by poster, PowerPoint, or Prezi.com. The presentations included not only a write up of the action plan and the results, but information about how much energy saved, reduced carbon footprint,or other facts about their topic (recycling, electricity conservation, etc.)- see pdf file for details and suggested choices of activities.

Click for an example of a Prezi presentation

The video link is an example of a student video.

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Climate Change-The Carbon Cycle
School: Rhea County High School, TN
Grade: 9
Date: November 27, 2011
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

Students will explore given websites and participate in interactive activities to learn about greenhouse gas, the carbon cycle, the indicators and causes of climate change, and the effects of climate change on various populations and weather patterns. Students will brainstorm good stewardship practices for the earth with a partner and develop an action plan to convince others either that they do or do not think human activity has contributed to climate change. They will create a product of their choice to share with the class and/or school.
Students will view the Carbon Cycle PPP and actively participate in the online test and Carbon Cycle chart.

We started a recycling program at the alternative school and at the high school. I spoke with the agricultural science teacher about getting together with the food services staff, to use vegetable products for composting.

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Public Service Announcement about Climate Change Impacts
School: Wellstone Elementary, MN
Grade: 6
Date: November 29, 2011
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

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Recycling at New City School
School: New City School, MN
Grade: 8
Date: October 24, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

The middle school students at New City School voted on potential actions they could take after learning about the many implications of climate change and decided that the needs of the school were to initiate a recycling program since we are lacking one. The administration had some concerns about recycling in the past and eventually canceled the previous recycling program because the company taking care of it was dumping the trash and recycling into the same truck. After some further research and questions with Allied Trash, the administration agreed to try a recycling program and felt that it was within the school budget. Further, Allied Trash stated that the trucks were different; one for trash and one for recycling. After doing some brainstorming about what the middle school felt passionate about and comparing those topics with the needs of New City School, the middle school voted with a large majority to begin work on a recycling program. Check out the PSA students created.

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Reducing Impacts to the Mississippi through Native Plants and Rain Barrels
School: Bloomington Lutheran School, MN
Grade: 7
Date: May 8, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

We want to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by planting native MN trees at our school. Our class is especially concerned because we have 12 mature ash trees on the boulevard surrounding our school and if the emerald ash borer gets to Bloomington, all 12 trees will potentially have to be cut down. Increased carbon dioxide is a major contributor for climate change in Minnesota and we want to reduce the amount by planting native trees, which are like sponges, soaking up CO2. We also hope that the trees will provide a place for birds to live.

Our 7th Grade class also wants to redirect water that rushes off the flat roof of our school by adding rain barrels on 2 down spouts. The water will be collected and used to water the trees we plant. This will help with climate change by keeping oil and other pollutants (like plastics) from going into storm drains which lead directly to the Minnesota River, which flows into the Mississippi River. We watch the rain from the flat roof gush into our parking lot every time it rains. The rushing water pulls plastic garbage and oil from the cars and busses into the storm drains. If some of the water were directed into rain barrels, the oil and plastics wouldn’t end up in the Minnesota River. These 2 project goals can create a cleaner river and prevent future climate change leading to a better overall environment.

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Water Quality and Climate Change
School: Heritage E-STEM Magnet School, MN
Grade: 8
Date: April 11, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

Water quality is suspected to be poor at a water source at Dodge Nature Center. This is mostly due to human interference. Students explored the water quality issues at two Dakota County lakes- Marthaler Lake and Thompson Lake. They looked at pH levels, phosphates, nitrites and nitrates, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and invertebrate populations. These bodies of water are part of the Mississippi River watershed. In the past, there have been issues with these two sources. Dakota County has used our school’s studies to improve these two lakes in the last ten years. The water source at Dodge Nature Center has not yet been tested but has been observed. Observations have been made about color differences and based on visual differences between this pond and an adjacent water sources. Students and staff believe there may be a aquatic imbalance in the water source due to sediment and fertilizer pollution.

Water quality is important to our climate because freshwater is scarce. We need to preserve our freshwater sources. This seemingly small project helps in the preservation of a local water source and improves its outlook. In addition, the temperature of the water will be measured and compared to other local sources. We may find that water temperatures are different in an unhealthy water source as compared to a relatively healthy one. This temperature testing directly relates to climate change issues because the water source cannot be healthy if the temperature is above a normal reading. Unhealthy water temperatures will not sustain healthy water habitats. This study will help students understand the connection between a local water source and its future implications if the freshwater is not preserved.

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Forests, Carbon, and Climate Change
School: Astoria High School, OR
Grade: 11
Date: January 26, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

Students working in collaborative groups in the junior (11th grade) and senior (12th grade) science class first learned about weather, climate, and Earth systems to address the question of the impact of global warming on the forests of Fort Clatsop National Historic Park and Clatsop County.

The link and pdf file below provides the information for the class and the student produced presentation on climate and climate change.

http://sites.goggle.com/a/astoriak12.org/baker

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6th Graders Teach about Climate Change in North Cascades National Park
School: Westside School, WA
Grade: 6
Date: December 8, 2011
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

For this project, groups of 3-4 sixth grade students worked together to develop an engaging, interactive, 15-20 minute lesson to be presented to two elementary school classes (either 1st and 2nd grade or 3rd and 4th grade). Each lesson addressed facts and information about the unique ecosystems of North Cascades National Park, how they are being effected by climate change, and what we all can do to minimize further climate change. To prepare, students met with teachers from their assigned age group to learn about the students they would be teaching. They also practiced their lessons and received peer and teacher feedback. After their lessons, students reflected on the experience through self and group assessments, as well as writing advice for future students completing this project. West Side Science Blog

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Colonial Creek Field Trip
School: Liberty Bell High School, WA
Grade: 10
Date: March 13, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Our understanding of the climate system is improved through observations, theoretical studies, and modeling.

Colonial Creek Summary

Two classes of 10th grade Biology students and 4th grade students from Liberty Bell High School and Methow Valley Elementary (~ 45 and 25 respectively) visited Colonial Creek Campground in the North Cascades National Park Complex October 27th, 2011.

Goals of the Colonial Creek Project were:

1. Remove Invasive Species.
2. Analyze distribution and percent cover of plants in a westside montane ecosystem.
3. Raise awareness of the National Park System’s mission to preserve natural habitat for future generations, and the effect of climate change on glaciers in the North Cascades.

Students engaged in a friendly competition to determine which team removed the most \"stinky bob\", measured in garbage bags, from various locations around the campground. Ranger Mike Brondi provided background information about the natural history of “stinky bob” and how it arrived at the park. Students and chaperones then got to work.

Kirsten Cooke, from Okanogan Conservation District, visited Liberty bell High School prior to the field trip. She led students in a trial run practicing quadrants and transect in the shrub steppe ecosystem. The following week 10th graders presented the lesson 4th graders. Multi-age teams of 4-6 students were geared up and ready for performing quadrants in shady and exposed areas at Colonial Creek.

Finally students were able to take in the beautiful fall day on the dock of Diablo Lake as Ranger Andrew Pringle led students in an interactive conversation about the history of National Parks and how climate change affects glaciers in the park and the subsequent effect on visitors and ecosystems in the park and beyond.

This multi-age field trip was mutually beneficial for both groups. The 10th graders appreciated the enthusiasm of the 4th graders and the elementary kids looked up to the model set by the older students.

Thanks for providing the time and encouragement to scaffold this project.

With gratitude for opening my eyes to the resources at North Cascades Institute,
Lisa Monahan

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Do One Thing
School: Ingrid B. Lacy Middle School, CA
Grade: 7
Date: April 25, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

Students will:
Participate in our local beach clean up day - April 21, 2012
Hold a school wide School Environmental Clean Up Day - April 25, 2012

Teachers in the 7th grade Science Classes will:
Teach a series of mini-lessons focussed on human activites which are impacting our environment.
Distribute large circular papers to groups of students as a culmination of the above lessons. Students will be instructed to describe, using words and diagrams, one idea which they plan to implement themselves to help create awareness, in our school community, of how human activities affect our climate system.
These DOTS will be dubbed Do-One-Thing and will be displayed in our lunch room, our multi-purpose room and in our public areas around school.

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Campus Cleanup Challenge
School: Sandy High School, OR
Grade: 11
Date: February 22, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

We started by looking at and mapping the different types of public land in our region. After making their map of National Parks, Forests, Wilderness Areas, Reservations, and Wildlife Refuges, the students shared their own experiences on public lands and photos if possible.

After this, the class read "Industrial Tourism" a chapter from the Edward Abbey book, Desert Solitaire. This chapter discusses the impact of allowing tourist into wild areas. We discussed the benefits of allowing all members of the community to experience the outdoors. We also discussed the consequences of the impact that these visitors bring.

After these activities, a group of students decided to measure the impacts of waste on our open spaces around campus. Students collected litter from around campus every week for eight weeks. The compared area around our building, the school's nature area, and the city park down the street. The students separated reusable and recyclable materials and measured the weight of all of the waste sub-categories.

The data collected will be shared with the school administrators and the school newspaper.

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Whole-School Recycling
School: Hillcrest Middle School, CA
Grade: 6
Date: April 24, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

I attended the NatureBridge conference in June, 2011 at Marin Headlands. Since then and once I returned to school, I have been working on a recycling project for our entire school. Working with Sonoma Composters, Northbay Recycling, Hillcrest Student Council members and Sergio Blanco (our Science teacher), we have been working since the beginning of the year to bring our school garden back into a thing of beauty - this with the help of several parent volunteers. We have supplied all of our classrooms with new paper recycling receptacles courtesy of Northbay Recycling. In addition, we have added 6 new blue recycling garbage cans around our campus and have started a food waste recycling program for lunch and snack time. To kick off the program, Northbay Recycling sent a representative to give a whole-school assembly introducing the program and reviewing the guidelines for each of the different receptacles. We encouraged all students to bring their lunch in reusable containers and reduce the amount of 'throw-away' items. This information has gone home to the families also to help educate the parents on how to help us reduce our daily waste. We have had a worm box built so that we can recycle our collected food waste - also providing our Science program with a teaching/learning example for all the Science students. We are using the compost from the worm bin on our garden. In addition, I have been speaking with the teacher who is in charge of Student Council at our elementary school about our work and she is planning on beginning a program at their school, using ours as a blueprint. Once both programs are up and running, we will be reaching approximately 800 children and 400 families in our district.

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Climate Change Keynote Presentations
School: Miller Jr. High, WA
Grade: 7
Date: April 24, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

Miller Jr. High students all received iPads this year, so I decided to design a technology rich lesson to share with them. We did a webquest of the EPA climate change for kids website together as a class and examined GoogleEarth imagery of the melting glaciers in Olympic National Park, just north of Miller. The students then created keynote presentations on their iPads answering some essential questions about climate change. The presentations were shared with other students at the school. The students are working on creating a native plant garden in their schoolyard and this will be tied in to ways to combat climate change.

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Empowering and Educating Young Adults Through Bicycle Advocacy
School: Bellingham High School, WA
Grade: 9
Date: April 30, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

Three projects are in various stages of completion.

1. A survey was developed and administered to freshmen and sophomore aged students to identify the barriers that exist to commuting by bicycle to Bellingham High. The results of this survey indicated that additional bike storage is necessary at Bellingham High.

2. Students are actively being recruited as a part of their culminating project to help design a sheltered informational bike rack that is a part of the current car parking lot. The end goal being to build it in a predominate location that students must pass by to get into school. This would provide commuters and non-commuters alike information regarding individual accountability to our global climate.

3. Current students have been actively advertising the local Bike to School and Work Day occurring May 18th in Bellingham, Washington. Students have produced color posters that have been distributed throughout the building advertising the event along with providing free services to get bikes tuned up and ready to ride. Students from our school will also be participating as volunteers at several local celebration stations for Bike to School and Work Day on May 18th.

4. Grant options are being explored to build the bike storage and information kiosk.

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Making Choices For Your Future
School: Wilson Elementary, CA
Grade: 6
Date: May 2, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

Students have been exploring how their choices affect our world. We've watched videos and discussed issues related to what we buy and what we throw away.

Story of Stuff
www.storyofstuff.org

The Lorax http://www.teachertube.com/members/viewVideo.php?title=The_Lorax&video_id=38802

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Go Green Glogs
School: Natomas Charter School, CA
Grade: 6
Date: May 2, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

For this unit, my sixth graders learned about Earth's resources and how our choices affect the planet. We watched videos (such as ones from the BrainPop library) and searched online for information about Earth's resources including energy, water, and food. Students first did a little research on how common, everyday items are made and what they are made from. We made lift the flap cards showing the object on the outside and what it's made from/if its sources are renewable or not on the inside. We talked about the distance things travel to make it to us and how these products often rely heavily on fossil fuels.

Next, we used websites like energyquest.ca.gov to explore the benefits and disadvantages our energy choices have for us and the planet as a whole. Students wrote about the ways that seemed the best for them personally to help conserve energy and why saving energy/using renewable sources is important.

Finally, we participated in an Earth Day project through Glogster online to make posters about Earth's resources that we use in our community here in Sacramento. Students picked water, energy, or food as their topic. Then they researched our communities' source(s), how it travels to us, and how sustainable these practices are for this resource in our community. They were also challenged to think of ways that these practices could be more sustainable and take their ideas out into the community to people who are able to make a difference in the current processes. Some students working on food resources were inspired to talk to their parents about growing a garden this summer. Energy group students were able to find out how much energy our school uses on a monthly basis, and they were shocked. Now on sunny days, we open the blinds and turn off the lights in my science room thanks to student initiative. All students took their research and used it to make online, interactive posters about their findings. Please check an example at this link http://jargo.edu.glogster.com/energydudes13

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Healthy Choices for a Healthy Planet
School: Saint James School, CA
Grade: 6
Date: May 3, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

The major goal of "Healthy Choices for a Healthy Planet" is to bring awareness of the need to conserve our natural resources and reduce our carbon footprint. The student community will be encouraged to pack lunches that help protect the environment. Through multi-age activities, students will learn to choose products and packaging that can be recycled or composted and to pack a healthy lunch. The sixth grade will explore the concept of reducing their carbon footprint by creating videos encouraging the student and parent community to "think globally and buy locally."

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Environmnetal Action Plan
School: Ocena Shore School, CA
Grade: 8
Date: January 3, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

Students watched Al Gore's movie An Inconvenient Truth followed by a discussion. The following week a presentation on climate change by Science teacher Lisa Dettloff www.passionforinquiry.com. The movie and presentation re-enforced that human activities have impacted and continue to impact climate change.

Students were the shown short videos from the website students against climate change. This was followed by a discussion of how student can make a change in their community locally and globally. Students were also shown pictures and videos of "trash art" that was displayed at the Marine Mammal Center in the Marin headlands.

Students thought, shared and discussed what they wanted to do to help the environment on a long term project. This project is called "Environmental Action Plan". Based on interests, students self created groups with a common goal. They created a plan with deadlines and goals. This is what they came up with:
1. One group of 5 students was inspired to participate in beach clean ups, so they looked up local beach clean up groups and joined them. They participated in 1 beach clean up a month.
2. Another group was inspired by the "trash art". The named themselves the C.A.B., short for "Caps and Bottles". They decided to partner with the beach clean up group. They would get caps and bottles from them and create jewelry and accessories from discarded caps and bottle tops.
3. Another group decided that they could make a difference here at school. As the school is a block away from the beach, much of the trash on campus grounds easily makes it to the ocean, through storm drains and/or wind. They worked after school on Wednesdays and picked up trash on the school yard. They will make a presentation and create an activity during our school's Ocean Week (an entire week is dedicated to learning about the ocean each year) to teach students about trash in the oceans.
4. A fourth group of students decide to plant trees on our school yard to absorb carbon dioxide and help lessen the pollution near our school, as it is adjacent to a freeway. They have not completed this project yet, but have met with the school's. gardener to discuss the possibility. They still need to raise money to purchase the trees.

These projects are due the first week of June. They will present their plans, goals, and accomplishments. We have in class meetings for 20 minutes once a week, but most of the work is done outside of class.

Whether or not they will be successful in accomplishing their goals, they have learned a lot about how their actions and more importantly, non-actions, have an impact on the environment.

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Responsibility with Trash
School: Thomas Edison Charter Academy, CA
Grade: 6
Date: May 7, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

Our students researched various effects humans are having on the environment and built terrariums to model it. They modeled decompositions, aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and predators and preys, and introduced pollutants into certain terrariums to study the effects. They then researched the impact that trash is having on our planet and the ways that trash can be disposed of locally in ways that are less harmless to our environment. They created signs for a campaign to educate the school, and began presentations in classrooms to educate younger students. A few students also acted as trash monitors during lunch, a time when much of our trash is generated.

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HRHS Energy Project
School: Hickory Ridge High School, NC
Grade: 10
Date: May 8, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

I wanted to educate my students as well as the entire student body about the little things they can do to help decrease their carbon footprint which will therefore have a positive effect on climate change. We focused on energy efficiency on our campus which would hopefully help reduce our school’s carbon footprint. Our community’s population has exploded in the last 10 years and I feel that many people are environmentally conscious. We already have school-wide as well as city-wide recycling, so that tells me people are aware of the little things that can make a difference for the environment.

During the Fall Semester, I introduced my biology students to climate change and how it’s related to the Smoky Mountains during our Ecology unit. They participated in a problem-based learning project in which they researched the impact climate change has had on several endangered species in the Smoky Mountains. I have attached a sample for viewing.

At the beginning of the Spring semester, I took a different angle when introducing my students to Climate Change. I had student groups research some of the indicators the EPA has chosen and describe trends that are related to the causes and effects of climate change. The topics were divided into: Greenhouse Gases, Weather and Climate, Oceans, Snow and Ice, Society and Ecosystems, and alternative Energy Sources. Students were instructed to relate these topics to endangered species in the Smoky Mountains when possible. I also had the students complete home energy audits and analyze the results with their parents.

I then had the students pick “Energy Groups” in which they could brainstorm ideas to educate the Student Body about Carbon Footprints and the impact little actions can have on climate change and individual’s carbon footprints. Some groups made posters, some made videos to run on the announcements, and some made signs for light switches and computers. Some also made signs about the Black Out we were hosting along with the Green Club, (which I co-sponsor), on Friday, April 20 (teachers were encouraged to teach with their lights off and many hallway lights were turned off throughout the building). Some video coverage of the Black Out is posted. Here is the announcement about the Black Out.



Posters were hung throughout the building, signs were posted above every light switch, and signs were posted on every computer. The week before Earth Day, (April 16-20, 2012) we ran EPA’s “pick 5” campaign to help educate students about small steps they can take to reduce their own carbon footprint. My students set up a table in the cafeteria and had laptop computers available for students to take their pledge during lunchtime. Throughout the week, we had ~100 students take the pledge. A video about the pick 5 campaign was shown on the morning announcements that week. I also had 2 groups of students make videos about Energy Saving. One of the videos about “The Energy Savers” is posted.

Smart Goals used during the Project

1. Hang signs above each light switch on campus by the end of April, 2012. The signs will remind everyone to turn lights off when leaving the room and also use only 1 strand of lights when in use. We have ~150 rooms.

2. Post signs on each computer on campus by the end of April, 2012. The signs will remind users to turn off the monitors when not in use and to shut-down and power off the computers at the end of each day. We have ~500 computers.

3. Run the EPA’s “pick 5” campaign during lunches the week of April 16-20, 2012.

4. Host a school wide “Black Out” with the Green Club on April 20, 2012. Teachers will be encouraged to teach with their lights out all day and use the windows for light instead. Some hallway lights will also be turned off.

My team consisted of my Fall, 2011 Biology classes, Spring, 2012 Biology classes, the Green Club, which I co-sponsor, as well as Mrs. Krista Collins, the other co-sponsor.

Project Resources and Building Support

1. Lots of interested students!
2. Power point or some other presentation software and computers for students to complete their presentations.
3. Video cameras for making videos to go on the announcements.
4. Permission for videos to go on announcements.
5. Lots of posters, paint, markers.
6. Computers for making posters and signs for light switches and computers.
7. Laminator for those signs.
8. Permission to hang signs on light switches and computers.
9. Permission to host the Black Out.


Project Timeline

Fall, 2011

I introduced my biology students to climate change and how it’s related to the Smoky Mountains during our Ecology unit. They participated in a problem-based learning project in which they researched the impact climate change has had on several endangered species in the Smoky Mountains.

February, 2012 (new semester and new students)

I introduced my Biology students to climate change and some of the indicators the EPA has chosen and describe trends that are related to the causes and effects of climate change. The topics are divided into: Greenhouse Gases, Weather and Climate, Oceans, Snow and Ice, Society and Ecosystems, and alternative Energy Sources. Relate these topics to endangered species in the Smoky Mountains when possible.

March and April, 2012

Have the students pick “Energy Groups” in which they can brainstorm ideas to educate the Student Body about Carbon Footprints and the impact little actions can have on climate change and individual’s carbon footprints. Some groups will make posters, some will make videos to run on the announcements, some will make signs for light switches and computers. Some will make signs about the Black Out on Friday, April 20.

April 16-20, 1012

Put plan into action. Hang posters, light switch and computer signs, run videos on the announcements, hold EPA’s pick 5 campaign during lunches, have school wide Black Out on Friday, April 20.

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Conserve the Nisqually Watershed
School: Mill Pond Elementary, WA
Grade: 3
Date: May 31, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

To help battle the consequences of humans and climate change, the third graders at Mill Pond Elementary in Yelm, Washington raise salmon in the classroom. The Nisqually River Education Project provides Coho salmon eggs to the students to raise into parr, which the students release into the wild. Our community is located near the Nisqually River, which is feeling the impact of climate change. The river is becoming shallower and warmer. The third graders have learned about the receding Nisqually Glacier located on Mount Rainier, which feeds the Nisqually River and keeps the river below 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Furthermore, students have learned about the life cycle of salmon. Students create life cycle books and bracelets to cement their understanding of the salmon life cycle. A local biologist came into the classroom to dissect a salmon, so students could see the parts of a salmon. In winter 2012, the Coho salmon eggs were delivered to the classroom and placed in a huge fish tank. For weeks, students patiently waited for the eggs to hatch. We were even worried for a while that the eggs would not hatch. But finally, the eggs did hatch and we watch the salmon as alevin and fry. At the end of May, the students will take a field trip to tributary of the Nisqually River and release the parr. The third graders do their part to conserve the Nisqually River watershed and local salmon.

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The Truth about Trash
School: Cupertino Middle School, CA
Grade: 6
Date: May 2, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

This is a week-long, interdisciplinary unit. The first day (in Science), the students compare different types of product packaging and make observations about what can be reduced, reused or recycled. The second day (in Science) the kids sort through trash from the school and look at what kinds of trash our students make. They sort the trash in any way that they want and make a data table to record their findings. In their next math period, they graph and analyze their data. The third day (in Science) the students choose one piece of trash that they found the previous day to research in more depth. They are looking to find how that type of trash (gatorade bottles, chip bags, food waste, etc.) effects the Earth. The fourth and fifth day the students work in both Science and Language Arts to create a flip book summarizing their type of trash and its effects on the environment. Their book needs to include a summary paragraph with data, an opinion paragraph, and a bibliography.
See Attached PDF (Truth About Trash Unit)for more details about the unit, procedures for the Trash Sort and Gradesheet for the flip book.

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National Parks and Global Climate Change
School: Stevens Elementary, WA
Grade: 6
Date: May 11, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate varies over space and time through both natural and man-made processes.

Over the past few months, my class has been studying the National Parks in the United States. Each student chose a National Park that interested them and found out many different types of information about their park. They wrote essays and also chose a prominent feature from their park to draw.

After studying National Parks, we studied Climate Change from many different aspects. The students researched why we have it, how long it has been in effect, if it can be slowed down and how we can stop the devastation.

After all research and writing was done, the students were videotaped with their information and this was turned into an iMovie.

Share iMovie

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Recycling...Let the clean up begin
School: Arborbrook Christian High School, NC
Grade: 9
Date: May 27, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

We focused on energy efficiency and recycling on our campus, which will hopefully help reduce our school’s carbon footprint. Posters were hung throughout the building and announcements were made during assembly time. We used the Cool School Challenge Carbon Footprint calculator to calculate the school’s carbon footprint. Then, we created a school wide goal to reduce our Carbon Footprint by 20%. Students who had me for class also computed their own carbon footprint and created an individual plan for reducing their carbon footprint over the course of the semester. The clean up crew weighed the school\'s daily trash for one month to give us an average weight. Then, my students collected the recycling each week and weighed it. The clean up crew continued to weigh the school\'s daily trash. At the end of the project, we calculated that the school\'s carbon footprint decreased 25.3% by the school recycling.

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Data Collection at Lewis and Clark National Historical Park
School: Knappa High School, OR
Grade: 10
Date: May 30, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

The Knappa High School biology classes began collecting data at Lewis and Clark National Historical Park. Students will be monitoring water quality, invasive species, birds species, as well as collecting sound and photopoint data in order to study the effect of climate change on the park. Student\\\\\\\'s will collect data at Lewis and Clark National Historical Park each year. Student\\\\\\\'s will also analyze the data and submit conclusions to the park staff.

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Riparian Restoration
School: Walla Walla High School, WA
Grade: 11
Date: May 15, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

The largest concern in our part of the world with regards to climate change is water availability and stream health. Predicted changes in the timing and type of precipitation will add stress to the water system in Walla Walla. This stress will be felt by humans as well as wildlife that depend on streams...namely steelhead, salmon, and bull trout. Yellowhawk creek runs through our high school campus and is an important fish migration route and irrigation water source for local farmers. As a group, we believe that a healthy creek will be better able to deal with the stress applied by a changing climate.

The project we undertook entailed occurred in two phases. During phase one each class (3rd and 6th period AP Environmental Science) chose one section along the creek and began removing invasive weeds in the riparian zone and trimming invasive reed grass in the stream. Phase two entailed contacting a local group for native plant donations to increase bank stability, out-compete invasive species, and provide shade to help keep water temperatures at a healthy level.

In order to involve the national park system, I took pictures of the restoration done at Whitman Mission National Historic Site as a model for what our stream restoration could look like.

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Environmental Arts Club
School: Cascade High School, WA
Grade: 9
Date: June 11, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate varies over space and time through both natural and man-made processes.

In addition to a 6-week unit on climate change, an after-school club was started. From the club's constitution: to use photography and other arts to communicate topics and issues about the environment. In it's first 6 months the club has had two primary foci: (1) Local and regional field trips (including North Cascades and Mt. Rainier National Parks) focusing on photography, drawing and natural history of the location. (2) Using a greenhouse to begin growing food for a local foodbank. This will eventually including learning about food issues including energy and transportation.

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Climate Change and Monarch Butterflies
School: Christian Life Academy, OH
Grade: 6
Date: September 14, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Our understanding of the climate system is improved through observations, theoretical studies, and modeling.

I will be taking my grades 4-8 science classes to a state nature preserve about an hour from my school. We will be catching and tagging monarch butterflies and tracking their progess over the next few weeks as they are found on their migration routes. Normally monarchs migrate to California and Mexico. However, climate change has began to affect this migratory pattern.We will track this over the school year to see how the local weather and climate changes that are occurring are affecting the insect population.

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Phenology Around Chequamegon Bay
School: Ashland Middle School, WI
Grade: 7
Date: October 8, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

Students around the Chequamegon Bay and from Northern Wisconsin are participating in this yearlong study. Students were introduced to Phenology and Climate Change in our initial lesson and will be reminded throughout the year of their importance in our everyday lives. Some of the major events that we will see will be posted on this website. Students have created a Phenology booklet and have been prompted to continually watch for seasonal changes. Some of this will be done on the students own but we will also add in observation times into our lessons. We plan on visiting the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore in Spring as a closing to our lesson.

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Phenology Garden
School: Mattacheese, MA
Grade: 6
Date: January 5, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

The students will design and construct a phenology garden on the premisis of Mattacheese Middle School by Jan 5, 2013.Our garden will be used to collect data on the bloom dates of zone appropriate plants as an indicator of climate change. Comparisons of bloom dates will be made from year to year. The hypothesis is that global warming is causing the growing season to begin earlier each year.

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Bio-fair
School: Northwestern High School, WI
Grade: 10
Date: October 31, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Our understanding of the climate system is improved through observations, theoretical studies, and modeling.

My students are designing, writing and carrying out an experiment based on a hypothesis about something they have observed in the natural world. We will be using the scientific method to have students make observations about the world around them and how climate systems and populations are affected by one another. The students will write a scientific paper that they will present at the end of the semester bio-fair.

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Phenology and Other Class Projects
School: Chequamegon High School, WI
Grade: 11
Date: November 1, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

My students took a field trip to Bayfield to see the Apostle Island National Lakeshore visitor center, Little Sand Bay and then headed to the Northern Great Lakes Visitors Center. We had already started a collection of plants locally, so we did some comparison of plants growing in those areas and collected some samples at the NGLVC.

Several of us that took the summer class then collectively are putting phenology data on a website. My students are keeping a journal of such data throughout the school year.

In addition, my students each are working on climate change projects of their choosing and doing a presentation via powerpoint, Prezi, etc... The attachment is my wiki page of the topics we are researching. There is another page of relevant links on the same wiki site.

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Fishing for Climate Change: Our shocking discovery
School: Highland Community Middle and High School , WI
Grade: 8
Date: October 4, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

Our school is located in the driftless area in southwestern Wisconsin. One way that climate change is affecting our community is through the warming of cold water trout streams. We set up an opportunity for our middle school and high school students to participate in a service learning project, assisting Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources with their biannual electro-fishing sampling at Big Spring Recreational Area (Big Spring). Big Spring is a site very important to the students due to its proximity, within 10 minutes of the school, and history with past service learning projects. Students got to observe fisheries biologists at work and then got to get their hands dirty, assisting in identifying the fish by species and measuring the first year young.

Students quizzed the biologists on evidence of any changing temperatures in the spring. A change in temperatures has not been recorded at the sample site as it is located close to the headwaters, an artesian spring. The students were prepared with good questions though. Biologists brought other issues to the students’ attention which were discussed at length following the service project. It was an awesome experience for the students to see what was under the surface of the water they have splashed in so many times. We followed this experience with a debate about the future of Big Spring and readings. This project was a wonderful springboard to introduce climate change since it connected the students to climate change in a very authentic way, through their community.

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Climate Change and Impact
School: Northwestern High School, WI
Grade: 9
Date: October 26, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

Students from Northwestern High School had an opportunity to learn about climate change in our local area through three presentations and a beach clean up in Ashland, WI. The following is a summary of the fieldtrip experience.

Visit the Northern Great Lakes Visitor Center, Ashland WI and Investigate the “Changing Climate, Changing Culture” exhibit on climate change impacts on wild rice and other resources traditionally used by the Lake Superior Ojibwe with Cathy Techtmann. Presentation on the impact that we have on our environment and how that is linked to our decisions and choices that we are making today for future generations.

Take a hike at the Northern Great Lakes Visitor Center to look for evidence of climate change on hiking trails.

Clean up the shoreline at Maslowski Beach in Ashland, WI

Visit the AINL Headquarters, Bayfield, WI to see Neil Howk’s power point presentation on “End of Winter As We Know It-Changes in Lake Superior Ice Cover at Bayfield, WI”.

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Climate Education and Carbon Capture
School: Green Bay East High School, WI
Grade: 12
Date: November 5, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

1. The development of a large, portable educational display for use at our school and at community events.
2. Carbon capture and climate mitigation by restoring a degraded school habitat site as an edible forest.

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Nature Trail
School: Solon Springs High School, WI
Grade: 9
Date: September 12, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Our understanding of the climate system is improved through observations, theoretical studies, and modeling.

~Apostle Islands National Lakeshore and more

In a sole day's field trip, Solon Springs ninth and tenth grade students traveled on an amazing, fact-filled journey that traversed the Lake Superior Superior shore while providing unforgettable news and views.

The focus was on environment and climate change, and how these affect Lake Superior, our region and us. Students learned, for example, how we all can ensure that Apostle Island National Park continues to be the most sustainable park in the US. They learned of the culture of Native Americans with their intertwined history of environmental responsibility in the region. They explored nature trails and the Great Lake lakeshore.

This was an extremely ambitious agenda for a single day field trip, but one that was rewarding and informative. Science teachers Mrs. Zosel and Mrs. Makela won a grant for this fully-funded trip. They mapped out an instructional field experience that would deliver maximum experience for their day of exploration. The students looked and learned at the Ashland Visitor Center, the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore headquarters and Little Sand Bay. Each stop served as a learning and listening post.

To follow up on this ultimate lab encounter, students will develop a nature trail on our school grounds. Thanks to both teachers for finding funding for this amazing experience; thanks also goes to the UW-Extensions and the National Park Service for this fantastic opportunity.

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Humans and the Watershed
School: Wingra School, WI
Grade: 6
Date: November 23, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

Students in grades 6-8 participated in a watersheds unit for six weeks. Topics studied included looking at our local watershed and making connections between what we observed in the watershed, humans and climate change,, connecting with local groups such as Friends of Lake Wingra, taking water samples in the lake, using microscopes to examine water samples, taking temperature and turbidity readings, meeting with local experts who study our watershed, learning about the hydrological cycle, viewing demos using watershed models, looking at human created and local changes in the watershed, viewing demos using the groundwater models, fish dissection and lab report, examining the global water crisis, watching video: Flow: For the Love of Water.


As a culminating project for a unit on Watersheds, students selected a topic related to humans and the watershed to research and create a related service project to work towards making a positive impact on our local watershed and on climate change as a whole. Students shared their research and service projects with our classrooms, presented at a school wide assembly, shared with parents at various school events and posted projects in public hallways of the school building shared by multiple programs.

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Citizen Science Pika and Mountain Goat Survey's
School: Flathead High School, MT
Grade: 11
Date: November 25, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Life on Earth depends on, is shaped by, and affects climate.

Students in the IB Environmental Systems and Society are given the opportunity to work with Jami Belt Citizen Science Program Coordinator,Glacier National Park, Crown of the Continent Research Learning Center in both their first year as well as their second year of the course. Students conduct both Pika and Mountain Goat surveys using the Citizen Science protocols during the fall of both years. This field study is a required trip during their second year with students writing their own research question, hypothesis as well as the planning stage relating to their research question as part of their internal assessment done for the International Baccalaureate program. Their research question must relate to climate change and its affect on Pika and Mountain Goats. Pika are great indicator species and GNP has noticed a decline in Mountain goat numbers during the past couple of years. During the Pika surveys students observe and listen for actual Pika along with searching for active hay piles and fresh fecal piles aka Pika poop! Mountain Goat survey's are done with binoculars and spotting scopes. Survey sites are selected by Jami Belt with several in class sessions used to cover Citizen Science protocol which are done prior to the final field trip. Once all data has been collected and processed by GNP, Jami returns to the classes and works with students on processing the data. It has been a great process for students to not only collect the data but to then process their data as well as data collected by others. Jami did a nice job in using a t-test looking at temperature and goat sightings. Students first used data from just one survey site and got a value showing that temperature and visual sightings of goats could be just by chance. Then students used all the data collected by the Citizen Science program they saw that the warmer the temperature the fewer goat sightings occurred was not by chance. I am always amazed at the number of students that I have that have never been to Glacier Park.
This particular class has Renee Cordes teaching year 1 with myself teaching year 2. We also take students on a spring trip alternating each year from Newport Beach, OR and Moab, UT. We will be incorporating climate change during this coming spring trip to Moab.

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Phenology Garden Study
School: Mattacheese Middle School , MA
Grade: 6
Date: December 12, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Our understanding of the climate system is improved through observations, theoretical studies, and modeling.

Does climate change advance the growing season on Cape Cod?
What will the collected data reveal about the growing season on Cape Cod?
This investigation will introduce students to the nature of original research, increase students’ understanding of scientific and technological concepts, and promote skill development in data collection and record keeping.

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Chequamegon Phenology
School: Bayfield High School, WI
Grade: 9
Date: October 1, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Our understanding of the climate system is improved through observations, theoretical studies, and modeling.

Phenology, observation and study of recurring plant and animal cycles and changes, can be directly related to seasons and climate. By having students observe their surroundings and take note of seasonal changes it might be possible over a long period of time to recognize changing patterns in regional climate. Students in school districts on and near the Chequamegon Peninsula will watch for specific phenological events. These events will be common and easy to identify. Teachers from each school will post the observations on a common website so each school can watch the seasons unfold around the Chequamegon Peninsula. The website is cheqphen.crowdmap.com.

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Climate Change: Educating Our Community
School: Lac du Flambeau Public School, WI
Grade: 6
Date: February 13, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.



Objectives:

1. Students will be able to articulate what climate change is and to cite at least two examples of Lac du Flambeau site specific change, e.g. reduction of number and quality of paper birch trees.

2. Students will identify examples of climate change that can be found in and around the school nature trail as they restore and maintain the trail.

3. Students will participate in one of three projects to heighten awareness of climate change in the community, using what they have learned:

A. Create a traveling table exhibit that can visit other schools, stores, libraries in the area.

B. Create web content for the school, GLIFWIC, and tribal websites related to the project

C. Create a piece of performance art around the project and the issues of climate change.

4. Design a research project related to Climate change in Lac du Flambeau that involves making a hypotheses and collecting and recording data. These projects could look at Identifying effective response strategies as well as documenting types and extent of climate change.


Partners: Tribal Natural Resources, Climate change institute folks, LdF School, Earth Partnerships, Tribal Elders


Activities:

1. Visit the Northern Great Lakes Visitor Center to learn about climate change issues, especially in a cultural context, and to learn about how to create an exhibit.

2. What do we know, what do we need to know, what do we need to learn to create a greater awareness of climate change in our community?

3.Accompany tribal Natural Resources Eco scientists to take core samples in traditional manomin beds to see how that have changed over the years.

4. Work with Earth Partnerships to study climate change on our reservation.

5. Take. a walk on the school nature trail. participate in a circle talk re one thing we learned, or noticed on the walk related to the condition of the trail, the ecology of LdF, and/or climate change.

6. Complete a project to heighten community awareness about climate change and encourage efforts to address the problem. Work with NGLVC, UW Extension, and Forest Service to create educational exhibits.


Some questions we will ask and try to find answers to:
What is climate change?
What are some examples of it where we live?
How bad is it?
Why is it important?
What can we do about it?

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River to the Sea
School: Capitol Region Education Council, CT
Grade: 9
Date: May 1, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate varies over space and time through both natural and man-made processes.

River to the Sea Interdistrict program brings students together from diverse cultural and economic backgrounds to participate in activities that focus on the Atlantic salmon and the Connecticut River watershed. Teams of students from cooperating schools work together to learn the complex interplay of the environmental, social and economic factors necessary to preserve the legacy of Atlantic salmon in its’ southernmost territory.



Atlantic salmon live at the intersection of natural and anthropogenic climate change. For over 30 years, scientists, fishermen and students have attempted to learn what it takes to restore the Atlantic salmon to the Connecticut River watershed. From December to May, students raise and release 200 Atlantic salmon fry into the local watershed as a service project. During that time, they learn about the life cycle of the Atlantic salmon, the causes of its' decline in New England and what must be done to continue the legacy of the Atlantic salmon in Connecticut.



Through their curricular lens, teachers assist students in creating projects that focus on watersheds, water quality, climate change, aquaculture and the intersection of society and the environment. These group projects will be shared at a "presentation celebration" in June.

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Changing Wisconsin
School: iForward , WI
Grade: 8
Date: January 20, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

For this project students in our 8th grade American History course were asked to learn more about climate change and cultural change. Students got to pick a group of Wisconsin people to study and learn more about. They learned about culture, traditional dress, food, music, etc. Then, students were tasked at learning about climate change and the effect it had on our world. Lastly, students were asked to brainstorm ideas on how the people living in our home state could be affected by climate change.

This was a project completed over one quarter. We worked on it a little each week and students were given opportunities to share their ideas and provide feedback. In the end, they put all of their ideas, information and research together to create one news article. These news articles were then posted to our class website called Changing Wisconsin.

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Project WATCH (Wise Application of Technology to Conserve Habitats)
School: Comanche Middle School, OK
Grade: 6
Date: February 14, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

Located near our school is a city owned flood control pond. Just above the pond is a sports complex. Our project is to determine if the sports complex is having any impact on the aquatic ecosystem of the pond. We do activities such as water quality testing, monitoring fish population and growth, and measuring nitrate and phosphate levels in the soil. This is an ongoing project and continues to get more and more in depth. This year we have actually determined that run off from the complex is causing increased algal blooms that are decreasing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water.

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Harwich Cares
School: Harwich Middle School, MA
Grade: 6
Date: September 7, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

“Harwich Cares is a student-run organization at Harwich Middle School that is working hard to promote and inspire their community to use sustainable resource management practices through recycling, composting, research, education, and personal responsibility.”

Harwich Cares evolved from discussions conducted over the summer during a Cape Cod National Seashore workshop entitled Climate Challenge: Our Atlantic Coast. The group now consists of over one hundred students and eight faculty members. The student-run group meets twice a week to bring awareness of environmental issues and climate change education into their community.

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Lake Mead Plant Restoration
School: Linda Rankin Givens, NV
Grade: 5
Date: January 29, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

The students distributed seedballs they made in class 1/14/2013 in a disturbed shoreline area along Frontage Road at Boulder Beach Lake Mead NRA.  Seedballs were distributed by gently releasing the seedballs at least 3 feet apart.  Proper spacing between the seedballs is necessary to ensure that there is not inter and intraspecific competition occuring, and to help mimic natural plant distribution patterns.  After the seedball distribution, students continued on to the nursery to have hands-on training of nursery operations including: seed cleaning, and weeding.

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GEM: Using Geology, Ecology, and Meteorology to Explore Climate Change
School: D. C. Everest Middle School, WI
Grade: 6
Date: March 18, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

G.E.M. is an environmental enrichment program designed for Middle School students with a high interest in science and environment. Sixty students in both grades 6 and 7 were selected by application to participate in a 2-year program focused on geology, ecology, and meteorology, three sciences critical to the understanding of climate change. In the first year, students were engaged in field experiences and workshops on a monthly basis. The G.E.M. program was staffed by Cindy Damrow, D.C. Everest School Forest Director and Randy Schwalbach, School Forest Naturalist, with support from middle school science teachers.
The first field experiences took us to the Dells of the Eau Claire River, on part of the Ice Age Trail, and Rib Mountain State Scientific Area to begin exploration of microclimates and geology. We worked with a paleontologist there and back in the school forest classroom to explore climate change through geologic history. The result of this experience was the creation of a large-scale mural of our earth’s history at our school forest. Students collaborated with well-known wildlife artist, Mark Mittlesteadt to complete this project.
The next workshop used web resources and labs to explore key “iconic figures” of climate change and the link to greenhouse gas emissions. We examined Lake Vostok ice core data of 800,000 years and analyzed simulated ice cores for particulate matter and pH, indicators of increased levels of CO2. We explored fossil fuel use in Wisconsin and conducted an energy audit of the middle school with Wisconsin’s Focus On Energy team. At a faculty meeting, the GEM students presented the findings of the audit with an action plan to save energy. Actions implemented were weather stripping of doors, use of natural lighting, reduction in number of lights on per room or hallway, and attention to unplugging electronic devices not in use. The entire student body pledged to conserve energy. These pledges were displayed on “pledge trees” through the school. An overnight field experience at Devils Lake State Park cemented their understanding of the year’s work.
In year two, students conducted independent research on climate change in ten national parks, toward the goal of educating classmates and parents about the impacts of climate change, emphasizing water, tourism, and wildlife. We used the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore as a model, with students viewing the PowerPoint created by Superintendent Bob Krumenaker. Working in teams of three, students created PowerPoint presentations and display boards. Each team was required to make contact with a scientist working in the park they studied. This project was displayed and interpreted by students during parent-teacher conferences in February. Students will present their projects in their science classes during Earth Week to 400 seventh graders.
The conclusion of the GEM program at the middle school level will involve the students in a three-day experience at the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore in May 2013. Highlights will include the Northern Great Lakes Visitor Center, a presentation by National Park Service interpreter, Neil Howk, and a ferry to Madeline Island with the Island School Program. While on the island, students will hike at Big Bay State Park. For a comparative ecological study, students will participate in emergence counts of native bat populations at Les Voight Fish Hatchery with wildlife biologist Brian Heeringa. Also, students will experience the cultural richness of the region through the UW-Extension Paddle Through Time curriculum, paddling a 34’ voyageur canoe in Chequamegon Bay.

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Climate Change for Elementary Students
School: Iron River School, WI
Grade: 3
Date: October 11, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

Prior to going on our field trip, our class learned about climate change by reading and discussing What Do You Think About Climate Change? This is a leveled reader from the Reading a to z website. This is a fifth grade level book that I put up on the Smartboard so that we could read and discuss the book together. Topics covered were an introduction to climate change, evidence and causes of climate change, along with possible results and what is being done about climate change.

We also watched videos from the Climate Wisconsin website. We watched and discussed the Farming and the Ice Fishing videos since those are two areas that are relevant in our area.

During the first part of our field trip to the Apostle Islands Lakeshore we went to Little Sand Bay. While there, our tour guide took the students through the buildings still remaining on Little Sand Bay that used to be a fishery run by the Hokenson brothers. She took the students through the buildings and explained what typical activities were throughout the seasons. We discussed how things would be different now in regard to our changing climate.

We also visited the Northern Great Lakes Visitor Center in Ashland,WI. Students investigated and discussed the “Changing Climate, Changing Culture” exhibit on climate change impacts on wild rice and other resources traditionally used by the Lake Superior Ojibwe with Cathy Techtmann.

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Local Motion – Buff, Chisel, and Chip. Now you see it, now you don’t. Investigation into the changes on the Earth’s surface.
School: Mattacheese Middle School, MA
Grade: 7
Date: March 6, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Life on Earth depends on, is shaped by, and affects climate.

The purpose of this lesson is to elicit students thinking about weathering, erosion, and deposition. By researching and gathering evidence, students will observe the Earth is constantly changing and has been for thousands of years. Some natural changes occur during extreme events when the powerful force of waves and wind pound the coast. Extreme events can be caused by the heating of our atmosphere. Some changes are related to human actions. This lesson can be broken into more than one day depending upon length of class time.

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Lake Mead Native Plant Nursery Advertising Campaign
School: Hyde Park Middle School, NV
Grade: 8
Date: April 1, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

For our project, we created a small advertising campaign to let other people know the impact that volunteering at the nursery can impact their national recreation areas. The nursery grows native plants and puts them back into nature, and keeps the Lake Mead Recreational Area a beautiful place. They usually have to do this because of impacts by humans - off road-ing, littering, etc. This nursery helps the environment, and we wanted to emphasize the need for volunteers to continue this work.

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Teaching the Community about Climate Change
School: Nantucket High School, MA
Grade: 11
Date: March 20, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

ELL students,most in their first year of learning English, will learn about climate change and then create billingual posters to educate adults in their community about the issue of climate change and what individuals can do in their daily lives to reduce their carbon footprint. Environmental Science students, with English as their first language, research a phenology project online, choose an observation or experiment they could conduct locally and explain the methodology to the class, and can participate in a local observation project of their own choosing and of the annual bloom of daffodils on Nantucket.

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What about the tropical fish?
School: Lied M.S., NV
Grade: 7
Date: March 16, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

Students visited Rogers Springs in Lake Mead National Recreation Area and with help of area rangers learned about the hydrology of the springs and how climate change might impact them. During their time there they took an interest in the large number of non-native tropical fish that were living in the springs (being dumped by previous owners). They brainstormed some possible strategies to investigate how big of a problem this was and ways it could be fixed.

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Colorado Climate Change Project
School: Hoehne High School, CO
Grade: 11
Date: October 10, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate varies over space and time through both natural and man-made processes.

The primary objective of this project was to evaluate real-world evidence for climate change in the geologic past of our local area and to compare this evidence with models of climate change in modern times. To do this, students collected, classified, and interpreted a wide variety of geologic evidence in order to create a fairly comprehensive climate model of two "extreme" climates of our region in the geologic past: (1) glacial maximum during the Pleistocene (ca. 21,000 years ago) and (2) tropical greenhouse during the Late Cretaceous (ca. 70 million years ago). Although these were widely differing climates,there is strong evidence that climate was principally controlled by the same general processes: namely Milankovitch-driven climate cycles. In contrast, climate change today appears to be primarily driven by other mitigating factors, such as the release of heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Therefore, students were able to tease apart the signatures of climate change in the geologic past and climate change in the present. The results of this project were compiled into a presentation.

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Kalispell Middle School Climate Change Ambassadors and Reusable Water Bottle Project
School: Kalispell Middle School, MT
Grade: 6
Date: January 1, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

After attending a teacher workshop by the National Parks Service, teachers at Kalispell Middle School felt the need to share the message of climate change by forming a student-led climate change group. Students were asked to apply for the climate change group at the beginning of the school year. Each member was required to participate in an educational two day trip to Glacier National Park led by the National Park Service and the Glacier Institute, newspaper drives and a service project designed by the teachers and students. In addition students were required to act as ambassadors to the school population by sharing their service project and the climate change knowledge they had acquired.

The seventeen students began their climate change ambassadorship by attending an overnight trip to Glacier National Park. During the trip, students acquired knowledge of the effects of climate change on the park and in the world environment. Because of our location, the students were able to see the effects climate change is taking first hand, in both the park and throughout our valley floor. This educational trip gave students the knowledge and experience to take back and share with their peers through presentations and school activities throughout the year.

After returning, students were asked to design a service project to share their message of climate change. The students decided they wanted the project not only to share the message of climate change but to show the school community how each person could make a difference in our environment. In January, the climate change ambassadors presented to their grade level peers the difference each person could make by choosing a reusable water bottle. During the presentation, students in the sixth grade were each given a water bottle with the climate change group’s message, “We can make a difference, one bottle at a time.” After the presentation climate change students randomly sampled classes to see if the message of reusable water bottles had made a difference in student behavior. During the sampling students continued to promote the message that each student could make a difference. When looking at the end result the climate change group was amazed at how much their message made a difference in the usage of reusable water bottles in the sixth grade.

Throughout the year the climate change students also were able to share their message by participating in the “Trees to Paper Drive” and fundraising through bake sales for water bottle filling stations at Kalispell Middle School. The seventeen students continue to share their message on a daily basis and hope to continue working toward a better future for all of us in the upcoming year.

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Causes of ecosystem change
School: Carver Elementary Academy, TX
Grade: 5
Date: October 18, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate varies over space and time through both natural and man-made processes.

Predict the effects of changes in ecosystems caused by living organisms, including humans.

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A School Site: Spotted Knapweed Insectary
School: West Valley School, MT
Grade: 6
Date: August 21, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Our understanding of the climate system is improved through observations, theoretical studies, and modeling.

On August 21, 2012, West Valley students, teachers, & community members released 1,000 Cyphocleonus achates into the new West Valley Insectary. The cyphocleionus is a weevil that burrows into the roots of the spotted knapweed and kills the plant.

This exciting day set the stage for middle school students to learn about the impacts of climate change and the rapid spread of invasive weeds around West Valley School and Glacier National Park.

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Where is our water, and what is in our water?
School: Maxwell High School, NM
Grade: 10
Date: December 8, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

After many years of drought, our rural community is facing water restrictions. The climate change has also weakened our forests and leaves us vulnerable to increased threat of fires. The low levels in our aquifers can also impact the quality of our water.

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Climate Change Is Real! A Capulin Volcano National Monument Student Service Learning Project
School: Empire Public Schools, OK
Grade: 11
Date: April 22, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

The students of Empire High School had the opportunity to use their yearly field trip as a service learning project that would allow them to learn about Climate Change as well as give back to the environment. Capulin Volcano National Monument gave them the opportunity to engage in detailed discussion about Climate Change and the chance to make a difference to the local environment. The three day course was full of hands on projects inside as well as outside the Learning Center and is listed below:

Monday, April 22, 2013
8:30am Introduction to the Greenhouse Project
The students were given a hands on tour of the Parks greenhouse.
10:00am Monitoring Climate Change-Indicator Species and Hummingbirds
11:00am Species on Mt. Capulin directly affected by Humans
The students hiked the rim of Mt. Capulin to observe the direct impact of humans on that environment.
1:00pm The Greenhouse Project
Students helped plant native species of grass seed and distribute Grass Seed Bombs (pictured) in the local pasture, and they helped improve the park through landscaping projects.

Tuesday, April 23, 2013
8:30am NPS Mission: Climate Change Is Real!
9:30am How Do We Study Climate Change?
10:30am Ecological Impacts Around the World-glaciers, prairies, etc.
11:00am The Biodiversity Program
1:00pm Finite Resources-Water Consumption Game(pictured)
2:00pm Greenhouse Gasses-Lab and Game(pictured)
7:00pm Movie Night(A movie related to Climate Change)

Wednesday, April 24, 2013
8:00am Leave for Taos, NM on the North route of the Enchanted Circle Scenic Byway-Students observed how Climate Change has affected the local environments.
11:00am Tour of Earthship Community in Taos, NM
Students learned how people can make a difference through conservation efforts.
1:00pm Leave for Mt. Capulin, NM on the South route of the Enchanted Circle Scenic Byway-Students observed how Climate Change has affected the local environments.

This was an event packed field trip that really challenged the students to look at Climate Change and how we are the stewards of our environment. It gave the students a better understanding of how important and fragile our National Park System is, and what they can do to help to better these environments for further generations to enjoy. For more information about learning opportunities at Mt. Capulin (which I highly recommend) go to http://www.nps.gov/cavo/index.htm

Thank You,

Jason Allensworth
Empire Public Schools

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Lake MEad
School: Greenspun Junior High School, NV
Grade: 8
Date: May 24, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

Greenspun Junior High School Leadership Club students are raising awareness about the dangers and the damage done by the use of carbureted 2-stroke engines. Carbureted 2-stroke engines create pollution which adversely affects water quality and the environment. Lake Mead is largest national recreation area, and in 2013 a ban on personal watercrafts with carbureted 2-stroke engines goes went into effect to help reduce the pollution. The Leadership Club students led by educators Gwendolyn Buckles and Kate Litzenberg have embarked on a campaign to educate friends, family and the community. Their campaign named, Lake MEad, focuses on the effect pollution has on this natural recreation area and what the lake and its vast recreation areas mean to them as residents of Southern Nevada.

Greenspun Junior High School Club students have created a multi-media campaign to spread the word about the 2-stroke engine ban at the lake this summer in the hopes of keeping it clean. During their after-school club, which meets weekly, students chose this cause as their annual community, project. In preparation, the students took a tour of the Lake Mead Recreation Area and have worked with experts to educating themselves about the damage done by carbureted 2-stroke engines. The Lake MEad campaign provides facts about Lake Mead and is in conjunction with the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service. The students have created PSAs for TV and Radio and created as well as flyers to use to increase awareness and support the ban on personal watercraft with carbureted 2 stroke-engines at Lake Mead.

About Greenspun Junior High School – Greenspun Junior High School, located in Henderson, Nevada, is part of the Clark County School District and first opened for the 1991-1992 school year. The school is named in honor of Hank and Barbara Greenspun: notable Las Vegans who made a tremendous contribution to Clark County. The school is located at 140 N. Valle Verde Drive, Henderson, NV 89074, 702.990.0920.

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Exploring Energy Through Public Service
School: Robbinsdale Middle School, MN
Grade: 7
Date: May 29, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

Students studied different forms of energy and their impact on the environment. After learning about the various forms of energy, students design an informational brochure or poster choosing one of the following topics: TOPICS:
• The Need for Energy Conservation
• Ways to Help Conserve Energy
• Renewable Energy Resources are the Future
• Are You Doing Everything to Help Preserve Our Planet?

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Seeding Native Grassland
School: Des Moines Municipal School, NM
Grade: 7
Date: May 9, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Life on Earth depends on, is shaped by, and affects climate.

In-class lessons on niches and biodiversity with discussion and activities for climate change effect, followed by an extension of going to the national park and collecting and planting native grass seedheads.

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Lake Mead and its struggles.
School: Valley High School, NV
Grade: 12
Date: April 28, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

Introduction
The trip took place on Sunday 28th 2013 after many months of preparation. Six students met at Valley High School bright and early on that Sunday morning and Ms. Morrison, the club adviser, rented a Suburban and was able to transport everyone to the lake. When the group arrive to the lake students were in groups of two, they were equipped with water, snacks, lab notebooks, writing utensils, and most importantly several vials. These vials were the key to the expedition.
Logistics
Each group was assigned a different area in the lake and responsible to for collecting water from that location as well. A total of five locations were tested. The water samples were gathered from five different sites along the Lake Mead National Recreation Area on April 28, 2013 between the hours of 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. The five locations included Boulder Beach, The Las Vegas Boat Harbor Marina Complex, Las Vegas Bay, the Government was and the Callville Bay Marina.
When the expedition reached a new site the students would record observations about the area, stating the amount of human activity and any other detail that they may have noticed. The samples were carefully collected and placed in a cooler for later testing in the lab. Finally, all sites showed results in between 61-120 ppm hardness of the water, and 0 ppm for the levels of chlorine in the water.
Field work
The chemical analysis tested for the following in the water: dissolved oxygen, copper nitrates, phosphates, hardness, and chlorine. We also tested the levels of E. coli.
Results
The dissolve oxygen was a t 4ppm or 44% or 45% saturation for the water at Boulder Beach and Las Vegas Boat Harbor Marina Complex respectively, 0% saturation at Las Vegas Bay and the Government Wash. As for phosphate concentration all sites except Las Vegas Bay showed phosphate concentrations at 1 ppm; Las Vegas Bay showed 2ppm concentrations. Furthermore, concentrations for copper and nitrates were at 0 ppm in all sites.
Conclusion
When considering the percentage saturation of dissolved oxygen at these five sites along Lake Mead National Recreation Area it is suggest that the water quality is poor, the hardness of the water is moderately hard, and there are no levels of copper, chlorine or nitrates. The results also report excellent water quality as far as the levels of phosphate.
The bacterial contamination in all five sites shows growth only at the Government wash where there were a considerate amount of humans and fish around the sampling area.





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Bayfield - Madeline Island Ice Road: 150 years of data
School: Bayfield High School, WI
Grade: 10
Date: July 15, 2012
Climate Literacy Principle: Our understanding of the climate system is improved through observations, theoretical studies, and modeling.

In the winter an ice road connects Bayfield, Wisconsin with Madeline Island allowing island residents the freedom to drive to and from the mainland. The length of the ice road season has been steadily changing over the past 150 years. The attached worksheet provides actual data you can use to analyze the changes in the ice road. This lesson was derived from a student research project. (Forrest Howk, 2008) The lesson was created for the Apostle Islands Experiential Learning Project, a program founded by a National Parks Steward grant from the National Park Foundation.

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Wild Game Feed/Climate Presentation
School: Solon Springs, WI
Grade: 8
Date: October 13, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

The eighth grade students prepared various wild game dishes for the community. We then rented the Solon Springs Community center for the day and had people come to eat their dishes. While they were here, the students presented several Climate Change presentations they had prepared. We made posters and discussed them with the people who came to eat.

It turned out to be a very good afternoon and the people were impressed with the information the students presented about climate change. Most of their information came form the Forest Howk Power Point, with several of the posters describing the various graphs From Mr. Howk's Bayfield Ice PP.
The community was impressed, not just with the students, but with the fact that the information is documented and shows real evidence of what they hear about all the time: climate change. They left with a much better understanding of the concept of what a change in climate will mean for us here in the northland.

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GEM
School: DC Everest Middle School, WI
Grade: 6
Date: December 20, 2013
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

The Program
The GEM program stands for Geology Ecology Meteorology. It is a high interest year-long program designed to create agents of change. Students apply for the program in September by showing their interest, abilities, and background through a written application. Thirty students are selected and will spend a total of ten days throughout the school year. They will be working with our district’s environmental educator, Cindy Damrow. Cindy was a Climate Change Institute attendee in 2011. Edmodo will be used to help. The students will ultimately present multimedia presentations to their classmates, middle school staff, and to the public during “Earth Week” in April. The focus of the presentations will be the impacts of climate change on Central Wisconsin. Students will be calculating their “energy scores” and making pledges to reduce it.
Phenological Observations
Starting in early September, students were encouraged to make observations around their area. We shared these every other Monday. Observations such as leaves changing, first frost, crickets chirping, and animal behaviors such as nest building were discussed. We kept a journal and looked at county locations. During the hunting season many students were able to contribute observations from different generations. Some were able to hunt with parents and grandparents. This was very insightful and interesting to hear the students sharing.
In the spring I plan on focusing on ice melt on local lakes, as many students ice fish. We also are located near Granite Peak Ski Hill and will be able to keep record on the last days the hill is open. Many of our Southeast Asian students are involved with gardening. I am looking forward to the phenological observations from them.
Climate Change Service Project Proposal for DC Everest Middle School
This proposal is for my sixth grade science classes. It will put in action the knowledge and skills of the students to educate others and reduce carbon emissions in our school. Our goal is to have students make informed decisions that will be lifelong.
Background
DC Everest Middle School is home to approximately 900 sixth and seventh graders. Our district attendance covers the communities of Weston, Schofield, Rothschild, Ringle, Hatley, and Knowlton. The student population has about 15% students of color. A majority of these are Southeast Asian. The students involved with the GEM program will create and present multimedia programs to share with their science classes. These programs will focus on the observed climate changes in our area and then changes observed at national parks (such as the decline of glaciers on Mount Rainier).
The presentations will be available online as well as linked to our school website. Our school will be celebrating “Earth Week” with a variety of activities that encourage family involvement. These include Reduce, Reuse, and Reclaim contests and visits for Wisconsin Public Service and energy conservation.
In May our 7th grade GEM students will visit Great Lakes Visitor Center and Apostle Islands Lakeshore. Our itinerary will be very similar to our visit in the spring of 2013. In conclusion, I am excited for our involvement in this important program

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Environmental Engagement: Through the Lens of Climate Change
School: University of Wisconsin-Parkside, WI
Grade: 12
Date: March 5, 2014
Climate Literacy Principle: Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.

Environmental Engagement: Through the Lens of Climate Change
CONTEXT
Introduction to Community-Based Learning 101 Course
Unit on Environmental Engagement

This course prepares students for community-based learning experiences by exposing them to relevant philosophical and theoretical approaches, best practices, and applied exercises. Through this course, students gain a common understanding of the intent of these experiences, improving their ability to capitalize on the relevance of academic as well as career objectives. This is a required course for the Certificate for Community Based Learning and is the introductory course for the Civic Honors program.
ACTIVITIES This is a Unit on “Environmental Engagement” within the Introduction to Community-Based Learning 101 Course
Part I
1) Learn about some of the environmental activists who have helped to educate and promote environmental engagement. They act to promote green and sustainable living as well as educate the general public about issues important to the environment.
• Gaylord Anton Nelson, Henry S. Reuss, Ray Zillmer, Aldo Leopold, John Nolen, John Muir, Increase Lapham, Rachel Carson, Julia Hill, Henry David Thoreau, Theodore Roosevelt, Chico Mendes, Gaylord Nelson, Garrett Hardin, David Suzuki, Van Jones, James Hansen

2) Locally, visit the Petrified Springs County Park and some of the highlights of Ice Age landscape features on campus. Learn about evidence for climate change in the geologic past of the area and to compare this evidence with impact of climate change in modern times including models of this change and it's current, projected impacts - particularly, the impact on trees and Wisconsin’s sugar maple.

3) Harvest Maple Syrup from Sugar Maples.

4) In the woods, do some reflective learning. Label trees as winners, losers, and neutral as impacted by climate change. Reflect on what tree migration means to this place, this culture, and these people.


Part II
1) Visit the Ice Age National Scenic Trail - Lapham Peak Unit of Kettle Moraine State Forest a thousand-mile footpath that highlight Ice Age landscape features while providing access to some of the state's most beautiful natural areas.

2) Learn about climate change issues, especially in a cultural context.

3) Visit The Hausmann Nature Center, located in the Lapham Peak Unit of the Southern Kettle Moraine State Forest to learn about the Ice Age National Scenic Trail. Learn about evidence for climate change in the geologic past of the area and to compare this evidence with impact of climate change in modern times including models of this change and it's current, projected impacts.

4) Take a hike on the Ice Age trail. Participate in a circle talk re: one thing we learned, or noticed on the walk related to the condition of the trail, the ecology, and particularly the impacts of climate change.
5) Volunteer with trail maintenance work.
6) Learn how students can become more active in keeping the area sustainable and especially in consideration of climate change and its impacts.

7) Learn about other ways and opportunities to educate and promote environmental issues. They act to promote green and sustainable living as well as educate the general public about issues important to the environment.

Part III
1) Complete a photo voice project. Photo Voice, a methodology used primarily in community development and education, will be the format used for this assignment. Students will be asked to utilize this technique to represent their community-based learning experience through the use of photographs and accompanying narratives. Photo voice will also be used to give “voice” to the mission of the organization and those individuals being served through its services. Photo Voice is often a process used with marginalized people or opposing views, to give them “voice” by telling their own stories – bringing to forefront what has been relegated to the fringes, out of the mainstream, or made to seem unimportant. Photo Voice has its origins in social justice and community development theory, and will be used in this class to enable students to be conduits for promoting dialogue and sharing knowledge in a way that is meaningful not only to themselves, but moreover, in a way that is significant and respectful to organizational stakeholders.

2) Share the Photo Voice project in class through a 7-10 minute presentation.

3) Feature Photo Voice projects in an end of semester showcase open to the college and local community intended not only to share their experiences with the campus community, but to also provide a forum of grassroots social action and to heighten community awareness about climate change and encourage efforts to address the problem.

QUESTIONS

What is climate change?
Who are some of the environmental activists and what did they contribute?
What are some place-based examples of climate change (–i.e., economic, cultural)?
What can plants tell us about the weather and climate that we might not notice without them?
What are the impacts of climate change?
Why is the significance of climate change?
What can we do about it?





OBJECTIVES

Students will:

1. Analyze ethical issues and actions regarding environmental engagement, especially through the lens of climate change;

2. Explain what climate change is and cite at least two examples of climate change from places visited;

3. Describe various community environmental engagement activists, members, and agencies;

2. Employ active citizenship and effective teamwork through application of knowledge and organizational process to contribute to the community;

3. Provide a service to community entities through a specific and tangible task;

4. Complete a “Photo Voice project” to heighten awareness of climate change in the community, using what they have learned;

5. Explain the social, political, economic and historical conditions that construct social equality;

PARTNERS
Pringle Nature Center, Waukesha/Milwaukee County Chapter of the National Ice Age Trail Alliance.

READINGS
• “Sugaring” Climate Wisconsin-Stories from a State of Change, Educational Communications Board, http://climatewisconsin.org/story/sugaring
• Van Jones (2008) The Green Collar Economy, Chapter Two: The Fourth Quadrant
• Koehn, N. (2012, Oct, 27) From Calm Leadership, Lasting Change, New York Times

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Climate Change in Our Backyard
School: Ashland high School, WI
Grade: 12
Date: May 22, 2014
Climate Literacy Principle: Human activities are impacting the climate system.

This project was developed for an Advanced Placement US History class to help develop understanding of the topics of the environment, politics, and history; and evaluate their interactions
We had a limited amount of time between the completion of the AP test and graduation, so some "pre-project" work was incorporated into the main course at appropriate times.
Because of the recent high interest in the Apostle Islands area "sea caves" this winter, we had a great example of how human interaction changes the "wilderness" of a place.

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